Each of these was responsible to the Viceroy of New Spain in administrative matters (though not in judicial ones), but they also answered directly to the Council of the Indies. One of his early tasks was to implement the crown's decision to expel the Jesuits from all its territories, accomplished in 1767. Moreover, efforts were made to keep the Amerindian cultural aspects that did not violate the Catholic traditions. The difficult topography around the port affected local development and New Spain as a whole. His power was largely confined to central and southern Mexico—from San Luis Potosí in the north to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. Map of small land area in New Spain adjacent to the Hacienda de Santa Inés, documenting a legal settlement between indigenous farmers and a Spanish rancher (1569). In Guatemala, Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia, these officials were called presiding governors, since they were leading royal audiences. It wis the first o fower viceroyalties creatit tae govren Spain's owerseas colonies. If there had been significant mineral wealth in Puebla, it could have been even more prominent a center for New Spain, but its first century established its importance. He commissioned the expeditions of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado into the present day American Southwest in 1540–1542. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Tenochtitlan was razed and then rebuilt as Mexico City, the capital of the viceroyalty. The War of Jenkins' Ear broke out in 1739 between the Spanish and British and was confined to the Caribbean and Georgia. [70] "Fuera de México, todo es Cuauhtitlán" ["outside of Mexico City, it's all Podunk"],[71][72] that is, poor, marginal, and backward, in short, the periphery. Mules were used because unpaved roads and mountainous terrain could not generally accommodate carts. The United States bought the territory from France in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Audiencia districts further incorporated the older, smaller divisions known as governorates (gobernaciones, roughly equivalent to provinces), which had been originally established by conquistador-governors known as adelantados. The Kingdom of New Spain was established on August 18, 1521 following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile, since the initial funds for exploration came from Queen Isabella.Although New Spain was a dependency of Castile, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to … Once missions and protective presidios were established in an area, large land grants encouraged settlement and establishment of California ranchos. [148] It was also important to households and communities because it initially did not require the indigenous to displace their existing crops or migrate elsewhere.[149]. Where there were settled indigenous populations, such as in the present-day state of New Mexico and in coastal regions of Baja and Alta California, indigenous culture retained considerable integrity. After the refusal of the Spanish monarchy to recognize the independence of Mexico, the ejército Trigarante (Army of the Three Guarantees), led by Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero, cut all political and economic ties with Spain and crowned Iturbide as emperor Agustín of Mexico. The above is what some authors call the "historical process of the transfer of wealth from the south to the north. [1][2][3][4] Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. [20][21] The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected. [125], However, Oñate eventually learned that New Mexico, while it had a settled indigenous population, contained little arable land, had no silver mines, and possessed few other resources to exploit that would merit large scale colonization. After Columbus ' discovery of the Americas, Spain reaped the benefits of this New World. ", The Bourbon monarchy embarked upon a far-reaching program to revitalize the economy of its territories, both on the peninsula and its overseas possessions. Virgin of Guadalupe. Mexico City was the center of the Central region, and the hub of New Spain. [140] Although generally the revenues from crops and animals were devoted to expenses in the spiritual sphere, cofradías' cattle were used for direct aid to community members during droughts, stabilizing the community's food supply. There was a high court Audiencia in the Kingdom of Guatemala. [60] went out to start a revolt. It was a multiethnic revolt sparked by religious issues in several communities. The crown also established a standing military, with the aim of defending its overseas territories. The Bourbons sought a return to the monarchical ideal of having those not directly connected with local elites as administrators, who in theory should be disinterested, staff the higher echelons of regional government. The take-off for Puebla's manufacturing sector did not simply coincide with immigration from Brihuega but was crucial to "shaping and driving Puebla's economic development, especially in the manufacturing sector. [155], The most detailed economic records for the region are of the Marquesado's ranching haciendas, which produced draft animals (horses, mules, burros, and oxen) and sheep and goats, for meat and wool. [128] New Spain's Visitador General José de Gálvez replaced them with the Dominican Order in Baja California, and the Franciscans were chosen to establish new northern missions in Alta (upper) California. The census is also known as the "Revillagigedo census" because its creation was ordered by the Count of the same name. These efforts were mainly successful in the region of present-day Florida, where the city of St. Augustine was founded in 1565, the oldest European city in the United States. There is evidence that cofradías in southern Campeche were involved in interregional trade in cacao as well as cattle ranching. Commercial fortune in the viceroyalty of New Spain . Similar "Friends of the Country" economic societies were established throughout the Spanish world, including Cuba and Guatemala. cash loaned by local crown officials (the alcalde mayor and his teniente), usually to individual Indians but sometimes to communities, in exchange for a fixed amount of a good (cochineal or cotton mantles) at a later date. However, these maritime routes, both across the Pacific and the Atlantic, were successful in the defensive and logistical role they played in the history of the Spanish Empire. It also established a small number of manufactories of finished products, and licensed distribution outlets (estanquillos). Trade and immigration wasn't just aimed towards the Philippines though, it also went the opposite direction, to the Americas too, rebellious Filipinos especially the exiled Filipino royalties who were denied their traditional rights by new Spanish officers from Spain, who replaced the original Spanish conquistadors from Mexico who were more politique in alliance-making, who they had treaties of friendship with (Due to their common hatred against Muslims since native Pagan Filipinos fought against the Brunei Sultanate and native Spaniards conquered the Emirate of Granada), the idealistic original pioneers died and were replaced by ignorant royal officers who broke treaties, thus causing the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas among Filipinos who conspired together with Bruneians and Japanese, yet the failure of the conspiracy caused the royals' exile to the Americas where they formed communities across the western coastss, chief among which was Guerrero, Mexico[39] which was later a center of the Mexican war of Independence.[40]. Alexander von Humboldt called this area "Mesa de Anahuac", which can be defined as the adjacent valleys of Puebla, Mexico, and Toluca, enclosed by high mountains, along with their connections to the Gulf Coast port of Veracruz and the Pacific port of Acapulco, where over half the population of New Spain lived. Significant regional development grew along the main transportation route from the capital east to the port of Veracruz. But confraternities also later pursued cattle ranching, as well as mule and horse breeding, depending on the local situation. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America and its peripheries in Asia from 1535 to 1821. Colima (1524), Antequera (1526, now Oaxaca City), and Guadalajara (1532) were all new Spanish settlements. The first phase of Spain 's conquest of the South American continent was complete and a form of governance for the massive new territories was required on behalf of … Cacao boomed in the late sixteenth century, and then was displaced by indigo as the most important export product. The crown was also interested in generating more income for its coffers and Croix instituted the royal lottery in 1769. Since the Jesuits had significant power, owning large, well managed haciendas, educating New Spain's elite young men, and as a religious order resistant to crown control, the Jesuits were a major target for the assertion of crown control. In an independent nation, the Church anticipated retaining its power. The crown had set up the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. An introduction to New Spain. Until the 18th century, when Spain saw its claims in North America threatened by other European powers, much of what were called the Spanish borderlands consisted of territory now part of the United States. In 1568, Bernal Díaz del Castillo finished La Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. New Spain was organized as a viceroyalty governed by a viceroy appointed by the king.…. Central America was originally planned to be part of the Mexican Empire; but it seceded peacefully in 1823, forming the United Provinces of Central America under the Constitution of 1824. However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages. [42] In 1616, the Tepehuan revolted against the Spanish, but it was relatively quickly suppressed. "[139] Local Spanish clergy had no reason to object to the arrangement since much of the revenue went for payment for masses or other spiritual matters controlled by the priest. In 2020, in order to establish a more representing Empire and to take some of the enormous amount of work load off, Alfredo I instituted the Viceroyalty as a representation of New Spain. No agreement could be reached and the northern boundary of New Spain remained unspecified until the Adams–Onís Treaty with the United States (1819). This was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two the Spanish empire had in the continent until the 18th-century Bourbon Reforms. An important feature of the Bourbon Reforms was that they ended the significant amount of local control that was a characteristic of the bureaucracy under the Habsburgs, especially through the sale of offices. The Valley of Mexico had many former Indian city-states that became Indian towns in the colonial era. [3][4] The monarch had sweeping power in the overseas territories, The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights; he was the absolute proprietor, the sole political head of his American dominions. The South (Oaxaca, Michoacan, Yucatán, and Central America) was a region of dense indigenous settlement of Mesoamerica, but without exploitable resources of interest to Europeans, the area attracted few Europeans, while the indigenous presence remained strong. Santa Cruz de Nuca remained under the control of New Spain until 1795, when it was abandoned under the terms of the third Nootka Convention. Access to water was a limiting factor on agriculture, with the limestone escarpment giving way in water filled sinkholes (cenotes), but rivers and streams were generally absent on the peninsula. New Spain: The Spanish crown would, in 1535, establish a Viceroyalty of New Spain with its seat in Mexico City. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America and its peripheries in Asia from 1535 to 1821. Likewise, the exploration of the northwest coast by Captain James Cook of the British Navy and the subsequent fur trading activities by British ships was considered an encroachment on Spanish territory. By: Santiago Pérez Román 8A #14 This Happen in 1542–1824 The Viceroyalty was a local, political, social and administrative institution created by The Spanish Monarchy in the XV century for ruling in its territorial overseas territories. [16] In central Mexico, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was transformed into the main settlement of the territory; thus, the history of Mexico City is of huge importance to the whole colonial enterprise. They were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. In practice this meant that there was a concerted effort to appoint mostly peninsulares, usually military men with long records of service (as opposed to the Habsburg preference for prelates), who were willing to move around the global empire. Colombia according to the Central Intelligence Agency It originated in 1521 after the fall of Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, and officially created on 18 August 1521 as a kingdom (Spanish: reino), the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Brian R. Hamnett says that "José de Gálvez considered Oaxaca one of New Spain's richest provinces". New Spain was a viceroyalty, or administrative unit of the Spanish colonial empire. The Bug That Had the World Seeing Red. In one episode, the cities of Huatulco (Oaxaca) and Barra de Navidad in Jalisco Province of México were sacked. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. After the arrival of the Spanish, they domesticated indigo and created plantations for its cultivation in Yucatan, El Salvador, and Guatemala. [29] Products brought from Asia were sent to Acapulco then overland to Veracruz, and then shipped to Spain aboard the West Indies Fleets. In the colonial period, basic patterns of regional development emerged and strengthened. With such diversity they did not have a common ethnic identity or language and rapidly assimilated to Hispanic culture. Among these are the following: 1. Shop for viceroyalty of new spain art from the world's greatest living artists. which were products which can merely be grown and manufactured whereas American silver was finite. Katharine Bjork, "The Link that Kept the Philippines Spanish: Mexican Merchant Interests and the Manila Trade, 1571–1815,", "In Governor Anda y Salazar’s opinion, an important part of the problem of vagrancy was the fact that Mexicans and Spanish disbanded after finishing their military or prison terms "all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence."" As a result, a second wave of missionaries began an effort to completely erase the old beliefs, which they associated with the ritualized human sacrifice found in many of the native religions, eventually putting an end to this practice common before the arrival of the Spaniards. Although this episode is largely forgotten, it ended in a decisive victory for Spain, who managed to prolong its control of the Caribbean and indeed secure the Spanish Main until the 19th century. In short order the upper echelons of patrons and priests in the society lived off the work of the lower classes. [Note 4] Producing cochineal was time-consuming labor, but it was not particularly difficult and could be done by the elderly, women, and children. The Viceroyalty of New Spain united many regions and provinces of the Spanish Empire throughout half a world. save hide report. Spain attempted to establish missions in what is now the southern United States including Georgia and South Carolina between 1568 and 1587. [157] With little arable or grazing land, they exploited the lagoons of the Pacific coast, using shore and beach resources. The Viceroy commissioned Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in the first Spanish exploration up the Pacific Ocean in 1542–1543. In 1720, the Villasur expedition from Santa Fe met and attempted to parley with French- allied Pawnee in what is now Nebraska. 1531) in what was called the Bajío, a major zone of commercial agriculture. Spaniards continued to employ forced labor in the region starting with the conquest era and exact tribute from the indigenous. The Philippine islands, 1493–1803 : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Customize your viceroyalty of new spain print with hundreds of different frames and mats, if desired. Nevertheless, the creation of scores of autonomous intendancies throughout the Viceroyalty, created a great deal of decentralization, and in the Captaincy General of Guatemala, in particular, the intendancy laid the groundwork for the future independent nations of the 19th century. It wis ruled bi a vicery in Mexico Ceety who govrened the various territories o New Spain on behauf o the Keeng o Spain. The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Spain control over the Louisiana part of New France including New Orleans, creating a Spanish empire that stretched from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean; but Spain also ceded Florida to Great Britain in order to regain Cuba, which the British occupied during the war. One of the main sources of income for the Spanish Crown was mining in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. [132] Although that period was once characterized as New Spain's "century of depression," for Yucatán this was certainly not the case, with sustained growth from the early seventeenth century to the end of the colonial period. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was also charged with governing Spain’s Caribbean possessions. From diverse cultural backgrounds and with no sustaining indigenous communities, these indios were quickly hispanized, but largely remained at the bottom of the economic hierarchy. [142] But the British held onto their territory in the eastern portion of the peninsula into the twentieth century. However, important precedents of exploration, conquest, and settlement and crown rule had been initially worked out in the Caribbean, which long affected subsequent regions, including Mexico and Peru. [47][48], The British capture and occupation of both Manila and Havana in 1762, during the global conflict of the Seven Years' War, meant that the Spanish crown had to rethink its military strategy for defending its possessions. Since Tehuantepec experienced significant indigenous population loss in the sixteenth century conforming to the general pattern, ranching made possible for Spaniards to thrive in Tehuantepec because ranching was not dependent on significant amounts of indigenous labor. West of Mexico City the settlement of Valladolid (Michoacan) was founded (1529–41). Manuel Carrera Stampa, "La Nao de la China", The Unlucky Country: The Republic of the Philippines in the 21St Century By Duncan Alexander McKenzie (page xii). Despite its remoteness from Mexico City, "throughout the colonial era, Oaxaca was one of Mexico's most prosperous provinces. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... You may be familiar with New York and Nebraska, but are there 11 U.S. states with names that begin with the letter "N?" "[113] Other types of goods they received on credit were textiles, hats, shoes, candles, meat, beans, and a guaranteed ration of maize. Cattle ranching for meat, tallow, and leather were also important. The cah retained considerable land under the control of religious brotherhoods or confraternities (cofradías), the device by which Maya communities avoided colonial officials, the clergy, or even indigenous rulers (gobernadores) from diverting of community revenues in their cajas de comunidad (literally community-owned chests that had locks and keys).