This method of rum production is common on the French islands, particularly Martinique where it is called 'rhum agricole'. It's always a good idea to read the labels so you know what you're buying, especially when it comes to the potential of additives. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. That man's name was Facundo Bacardi Masso and the drink was known as "aguardiente,"" the Spanish word for firewater. This, coupled with the higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, makes column stills much more economical to operate than pot stills. But rum isn't exclusive to just one cocktail, as it's the alcohol of choice for everything from mojitos to mai tais to hurricanes. Cachaça is one of the sweetest rums available, though many people—particularly in Brazil—don't like to categorize it as a rum. These are undesirable compounds, partly due to being tainted as these first vapours effectively clean the still from the previous distillation. Whatever the origins of the cask, ageing spirits in the humid/tropical climatic conditions typical of the Caribbean and South America will have a very different affect to that of somewhere like Scotland. To prevent casks destined for extended ageing from gradually emptying over the years, it is common for casks to be topped up with rum from other casks in same batch. Some distillers increase the surface area of wood in the cask by inserting oak or charred oak chips. © Copyright odd firm of sin 2020. So if you take a mixture of alcohol and water, boil it, collect the vapours given off in batches throughout the boil, cool and so condense (turn vapour back into liquid) these vapours back to liquid, the liquids collected at the start of boil will be alcoholic and those towards the end will be water. Light Rum. It is at this blending stage where some of rums controversies occur. Each of these will give the individual rum various and distinct characteristics. The sugar and molasses produced by the first process are termed A-grade and the second B-grade. They also allow the production of lighter, cleaner rums. Simple column stills (like that designed by Aeneas Coffey) consist of two tall columns, one called an 'analyzer column' and the other the 'rectifying column'. Many distillers, such as Novo Fogo, even play with different types of woods that impart unique flavor profiles to the spirit. There are many different varieties of sugar cane and the variety and the region where it’s grown significantly affect the profile of the rum produced from it. Traditionally, cane is harvested by cutters wielding machetes, who cut the cane close to the ground as this part of the stem has the highest concentration of sugars, before lopping off the leafy tops. This is the rum you’re going to want to add to your piña coladas. The level of these (esters, aldyhydes and lower alcohols) is dependent on the length of the fermentation and the purity to which it was distilled. The still is charged with the wash and then heat is applied to bring to the boil. A good cutter will average three tons of cane per day but this is a tiny fraction if what a machine can cut and (gradient allowing) mechanised harvesting is now used. The volatile 'high wines' or 'heads' will be given off first and set aside. More modern three and four column stills allow for more efficient rectification. For example the first retort may contain low wines mixed with fermented wash, dunder and even some high wines. This can be commercially cultured yeast or natural ambient yeast found on the leaves of the sugar cane. You must log in to your account to make a comment. This is fermented and then distilled to make rum (or the neutral alcohol on which some liqueurs are based). It includes both the light-bodied rums, typified by those of Cuba and Puerto Rico, and the heavier and fuller-flavoured rums of Jamaica.. Rums originated in the West Indies and are first mentioned in records from Barbados in about 1650. That is why you may see a dark Caribbean rum aged for just three to five years while a North American rum of similar color and oaky flavor may be aged for around 10 years. See more. Taken in moderation, alcohol can be helpful and rum is its very tasty kind. Many rums are blends of light and dark rums of different ages. The crushing extracts the sugar cane juice from the fibrous pulp. Many rum producing nations have precious few rules governing age statements and additives, and I am not being controversial by saying that some producers take advantage of the lack of regulations or governing bodies. Molasses are so rich in nutriment that the yeast needs to be propagated and slowly introduced to progressively higher concentrations of molasses as its cell numbers increase. Thus each island and country where rum is produced tends to have its own style, favoured by the native population who have grown-up drinking that style of rum. Pot stills are used in many of the traditional rums, though most now use continuous column stills. This is filled with high wines from the previous distillation, again diluted with water but to a higher strength. They vary greatly in age, with the older rums costing more than younger bottlings. The variety has grown to rival the number of flavored vodka options available. Some distillers use chilled heads on their retorts which condense the vapours as they rise up causing them to fall back into the chamber. They are often quite rich and surprisingly smooth. Sure, alcoholism is a rising problem and it had led to many deaths, broken families and illnesses. Calvados is a French brandy made from apples (though it can also contain pears). Instead, it's often thought of as a unique distilled spirit that is its own category. Column stills are also known as 'continuous stills' because, as their name suggests, they can be run continuously without the need to stop and start between batches as in pot stills. Rum 101. Many commercially produced flavored rums will use artificial and natural ingredients to add the desired flavor to a white rum base. Dunder is the term given to lees which have been left in open dunder pits to concentrate the ester content and the acetic/butyric acids. While cachaça was once only available in South America, it's enjoying worldwide fame today. The rate of fermentation and the alcohol level produced is partly governed by the levels of non-sugar dissolved solids, being mainly minerals and Potassium Chloride, high concentrations of which inhibit yeast growth. There are also origin-specific styles like cachaça and rhum agricole available. The liquids placed in the retorts will have a dramatic affect on the finished distillate. In the case of the best producers and regulated markets, these age statements (rightly) represent the age of the youngest rum in the blend. In rum making one of the common additions to pot stills are retorts. Few spirits can make a beach cocktail like rum can. The inside of these casks are charred at the cooperage when first made. This is called reflux and it can also be achieved by the way the head on the pot still is shaped. Light, gold, dark, spiced, and flavored rums are among the most popular. Rhum agricole is noted for its grassy, sweet taste because sugar cane is a grass. Rum is one of the most popular liquors and it is used to create many cocktails, including the daiquiri and mojito. This taste profile is a result of either the production of congeners (organic compounds produced during production) or the addition of caramel. Thus a good sugar factory will produce bad molasses as it will have efficiently extracted most of the sugar. In the 1850s, a Spanish wine merchant living in Cuba set out to improve upon a cheaply made alcoholic drink that was common in the area. The heaviest compounds, the 'high wines' (those with a high boiling point) come off the still last. Often described as the 'cut', it this proportion of the run which will be used to make the finished rum. As in the first retort, the vapour causes the liquid to boil and the alcohol strength of the vapour is boosted a second time. Appleton Estate master blender Joy Spence, the first woman to hold that job title, … Many rum distillers will also use old bourbon barrels for aging because they cannot be reused in that whiskey's production. It is common for caramel to be added to aged rums to 'correct' the colour, and lets be honest, often to darken the colour so potentially giving the rum an older appearance. As in Cognac and Scotland it is usual for pot still rums to be double distilled - put through the pot still twice with the distillate collected from the first distillation producing a distillate with an alcohol strength in the low twenties and the second distillation typically being over 70% alc./vol.. A mentioned above the distiller must judge when to make the cuts during distillation so controlling what congeners are retained and discarded. Rum is a hard alcohol made from fermented sugar. The old rhyme goes, 'One of sour, two of sweet, three … The cut cane is promptly transported to the mill where it is crushed in a machine. BEST OVERALL. Ethanol alcohol and other desirable compounds are less volatile (slightly heavier) and so follow the low wines. Thus, you might start with ten casks of rum from a particular batch and ten years later be left with only five casks. Rum can be made by distilling the beery type liquid produced from fermented fresh sugar cane juice. Even if this is your first foray into rum, we think it’s OK to …